June 19, 2018 | Author: panosfotinopoulos | Category: Zoroastrianism, Magi, Dualism, Religion And Belief, Science
Report this link


Σελίδα |1Zoroaster From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Zaratustra) Jump to: navigation, search For the sludge metal band from Atlanta, Georgia, see Zoroaster (band). "Zarathustra" redirects here. For the album, see Zarathustra (album). For the racehorse, see Zarathustra (horse). Zoroaster Zaraϑuštra Spitāma By the third century, Zoroastrianism and Zoroaster's ideas had spread throughout the Middle East. This painting of him was made in Syria. Known for Founder of Zoroastrianism Hvōvi (traditional) Spouse(s) Freni, Pourucista, Triti; Children Isat Vastar, Uruvat-Nara, Hvare Ciϑra (traditional) believed to be a depiction of a fravashi Primary topics    Ahura Mazda Zarathustra aša (asha) / arta Angels and demons  Amesha Spentas · Yazatas   Ahuras · Daevas Angra Mainyu Scripture and worship      Avesta Gathas · Yasna Vendidad · Visperad Yashts · Khordeh Avesta   Ab-Zohr Fire Temples The Ahuna Vairya Invocation Accounts and legends     Dēnkard · Bundahišn Book of Arda Viraf Book of Jamasp Story of Sanjan History and culture  Zurvanism  Calendar · Festivals . Dughdova (traditional) Part of a series on Zoroastrianism The Faravahar.Σελίδα |2 Parents Pourušaspa Spitāma. 1.[1] Contents [hide]              1 Etymology 2 Date 3 Place 4 Life 5 Death 6 Philosophy 7 Iconography 8 Western perceptions o 8. Most of his life is known through the Zoroastrian texts.1 In Islam  9. the language spoken by Zoroaster. used for composing the Yasna Haptanghaiti and the Gathas.2 In the post-classical era 9 In other religious systems o 9. is dated to have been spoken probably in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE.1 In classical antiquity o 8. Old Avestan. hymns which are at the liturgical core of Zoroastrianism. on archaeological and linguistic grounds. Though he is known most likely to have been Persian. was the founder of Zoroastrianism. his birthplace is uncertain.3 In the Bahá'í Faith 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Bibliography [edit] Etymology .2 In Manichaeism o 9.1 Ahmadiyya view o 9. also known as Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraϑuštra). It is now generally thought that he was born in the eastern part of ancient Persia.Σελίδα |3   Marriage Eschatology Adherents    Zoroastrians in Iran Parsis · Iranis  ••• Persecution of Zoroastrians Zoroastrianism portal  v  t  e Zoroaster (/ˌzɒroʊˈæstər/). However. He is credited with the authorship of the Yasna Haptanghaiti as well as the Gathas. all reflect Avestan's fricative -ϑ-.is an irregular development: As a rule.[citation needed] [edit] Date The date of Zoroaster. some quite fanciful. "golden". and the *uštra. This form appears subsequently in the Latin Zōroastrēs and.[citation needed] The second half of the name (-uštra-) is universally accepted to mean "camel". *zarat. Avestan. "to like". Classical writers such as Plutarch proposed dates prior to 6000 BC.[-("dlog" gninaem .is strongly referenced to mean "golden"[who?] (from the old Eastern-Iranian zar. several interpretations have been proposed. "light" (from the root uš. in later Greek orthographies. "old")[5] "with angry/furious camels": from Avestan *zarant-.[citation needed] Several more etymologies have been proposed.[citation needed] "who is driving camels" or "who is fostering/cherishing camels": related to Avestan zarš-.[10] . further corresponding to an Eastern Iranian origin (the Old Persian word dar as a WesternIranian dialect would be the equal term of Eastern Iranian zar. though there have been other alternative etymologies proposed. Iranianlanguage variants of his name derive from the Middle Iranian variants of Zarϑošt. and perhaps (though ambiguous) also to Avestan zara-.[8] A folk etymology of the name is from zaraϑa.as a development from it.for gold and ushtra for camel.[b] Following *Zarantuštra.was linguistically an actual form is shown by later attestations reflecting the same basis.[6] "with yellow camels": parallel to younger Avestan zairi-.[4] Subject then to whether Zaraϑuštra derives from *Zarantuštra.(a first element that ends in a dental consonant) should have Avestan zarat.(/θ/) in Avestan zaraϑuštra was for a time itself subjected to heated debate because the -ϑ. "angry.Σελίδα |4 Zoroaster's name in his native language. Why this is not so for zaraϑuštra has not yet been determined. "friend". While zarat.[2] as used in Xanthus's Lydiaca (Fragment 32) and in Plato's First Alcibiades (122a1). which is the form that the name took in the 9th. was probably Zaraϑuštra. In Avestan.or zarat.[2] (cf. i.. Zaraϑuštra is generally accepted to derive from an Old Iranian *Zaratuštra-. but none is factually based. "to shine"). His English name. Zaraϑuštra is split into two words: zara.e.[4] The interpretation of the -ϑ.with the Greek zōros (literally "undiluted") and the Avestan -uštra with astron ("star").[4][a] These factors combined open the door for reconstructing the name's meaning. in turn. Pashto zōṛ and Ossetic zœrond. between the 18th and the 6th centuries BC. is unknown.to 12th-century Zoroastrian texts—suggest that *Zaratuštramight be a zero-grade form of *Zarantuštra-.]‫ ]3[زر‬it does not itself appear in Avestan.or from *Zaratuštra-. Zōroastrēs (Ζωροάστρης). and the derivatives from a later (5th-century BCE) Greek transcription.[9] Dates proposed in scholarly literature diverge widely. furious". Reconstructions from later Iranian languages—particularly from the Middle Persian (300 BCE) Zardusht. which. the date of composition of the Old Avestan gathas. The Greek form of the name appears to be based on a phonetic transliteration or semantic substitution of the Avestan zaraϑ. as Zōroastris.[citation needed] In yet another etymological variation. "Zoroaster".[4] All present-day.are:   "with old/aging camels":[4] related to Avestic zarant-.[6] Following *Zaratuštra. Notwithstanding the phonetic irregularity.[7] Mayrhofer (1977) proposed an etymology of "who is desiring camels" or "longing for camels" and related to Vedic har-. Old Persian zāl. "old". "to drag". and ϑuštra. Modern Persian uses the Eastern Iranian word for gold). "gold".are:     "[owner of the] golden camel": this is derived from old Eastern Iranian word *zar. that Avestan zaraϑuštra with its -ϑ. or "Primordial Creation. Ragha is simply a toponym meaning "plain. which coincided with both the "Traditional date" (see details below) and historiographic accounts (Ammianus Marcellinus xxiii. the Būndahišn. In the early part of the 20th century.32 and 24. which they accomplished by counting back the length of successive generations[11] until they concluded that Zoroaster must have lived "258 years before Alexander. and the discreditation can to some extent be supported by the texts themselves: The Gathas describe a society of bipartite (priests and herdsmen/farmers) nomadic pastoralists with tribal structures organized at most as small kingdoms.[c] which in turn gave the date doctrinal legitimacy. However.to 12th-century Middle Persian texts of Zoroastrian tradition. in Avestan.[citation needed] the "Traditional date" can be conclusively ruled out. By the late 19th century. While the land of Media does not figure at all in the Avesta (the westernmost location noted in scripture is Arachosia). and hence became the date cited by Henning and others. especially since it was made plausible also by the observational history of the Pleiades in the Geoponica that indicates Zoroaster as a principal source of some observations. A date of 11th/10th century BC date is sometimes considered among Iranists. a recognized authority on the various Iranian calendars. who in recent decades found that the social customs described in the Gathas roughly coincide with what is known of other pre-historical peoples of that period.[citation needed] Supported by this historical evidence. and farmers). in Yasna 59.[13] On the other hand. they needed to establish when Zoroaster had lived. The Avesta (both Old and Younger portions) does not mention the Achaemenids or of any West Iranian tribes such as the Medes. There are many Greek accounts of Zarathustra. The Old Avestan language of the Gathas (which are attributed to the prophet himself) is still very close to the Sanskrit of the Rigveda. Persians. scholars such as Bartholomea and Christensen noted problems with the "Traditional date." To do so. there are a number of other sources. 4th century AD). is said to reside in 'Ragha'. However. Although a slightly earlier date (by a century or two) has been proposed on the grounds that the texts do not reflect the migration onto the Iranian Plateau." namely in the linguistic difficulties that it presented. Coming from a . this remained the accepted date (subject to the uncertainties of the 'Age of Alexander'[d]) for a number of reputable scholars.6. it is also possible that Zoroaster lived in one of the rural societies that remained in Central Asia. Moreover they have the suggestion that there has been more than one Zoroaster.Σελίδα |5 Until the late 17th century. the issue was far from settled. among them Hasan Taqizadeh.to 12th-century texts of Zoroastrian tradition. at which time society is attested to have had a tripartite structure (nobility/soldiers. or even Parthians." (20. Zoroaster was generally dated to about the 6th century BC. proposed that Zoroaster's father was from Atropatene (also in Medea) and his mother was from Rey. this 'Ragha'—along with many other places—appear as locations in Western Iran." This estimate then re-appeared in the 9th. already at the time (late 19th century). However. in post-Islamic sources Shahrastani (1086–1153) an Iranian writer originally from Shahristān.15) puts Ragha in Media (medieval Rai). referred usually as Persian or Perso-Median Zoroaster. The "Traditional date" originates in the period immediately following Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC. The Greek and Latin sources are divided on the birthplace of Zarathustra.18. or supreme head of the Zoroastrian priesthood. present-day Turkmenistan. In the 9th. The Seleucid kings who gained power following Alexander's death instituted an "Age of Alexander" as the new calendrical epoch.32. the zaraϑuštrotema.[citation needed] [edit] Place Yasna 9 & 17 cite the Ditya River in Airyanem Vaējah (Middle Persian Ērān Wēj) as Zoroaster's home and the scene of his first appearance. priests. This contrasts sharply with the view of Zoroaster having lived in an empire."[12] Apart from these indications in Middle Persian sources which are open to interpretations. it seemed implausible that the Gathas and Rigveda could be more than a few centuries apart. hillside. This did not appeal to the Zoroastrian priesthood who then attempted to establish an "Age of Zoroaster. suggesting a date for the oldest surviving portions of the Avesta of roughly the 2nd millennium BCE. Therefore. but this has been likewise rejected by Gershevitch and others. Frye voted for Bactria and Chorasmia. The Spend Nask. Zoroaster is depicted wrestling with the daevas and is tempted by Angra Mainyu to renounce his faith (Yasht 17.[14][15] Also Arabic sources of the same period and the same region of historical Persia consider Azerbaijan as the birthplace of Zarathustra. probably. this was a serious blow for the various regions who all claimed that Zoroaster originated from their homelands. and his mother's was Dughdova (Duγδōuuā). Freni. as in the Shāhnāmeh. They also indicate he had difficulty spreading his teachings.[17] Khlopin suggests the Tedzen Delta in present-day Turkmenistan. of Zoroaster himself. and was even treated with ill-will in his mother's hometown. some of which then decided that Zoroaster must then have then been buried in their regions or composed his Gathas there or preached there. Huvovi (Hvōvi)."[21] [edit] Life Zoroaster holds the celestial sphere in Raphael's School of Athens The Gathas contain allusions to personal events. is said to have a description of the prophet's life. Gnoli proposed Sistan (though in a much wider scope than the present-day province) as the homeland of Zoroastrianism. but must be considered as primarily a collection of legends."[19] Boyce includes the steppes to the west from the Volga. [22] However.Σελίδα |6 reputed scholar of religions. According to Yasnas 5 & 105. at which Zoroaster presided.[16] By the late 20th century. His father's name was Pourušaspa. three daughters. The 2005 Encyclopedia Iranica article on the history of Zoroastrianism summarizes the issue with "while there is general agreement that he did not live in western Iran.[20] The medieval "from Media" hypothesis is no longer taken seriously. Isat Vastar.to 12th-century stories of Zoroaster. attempts to locate him in specific regions of eastern Iran. such as Zoroaster's triumph over obstacles imposed by competing priests and the ruling class. Vendidad 19).[23] His wife. Zoroaster had three sons. The historical Zoroaster. and Zaehner has even suggested that this was a Magimediated issue to garner legitimacy. With his wife. however. were his first converts after his illumination from Ahura Mazda at age 30. In the texts of the Younger Avesta (composed many centuries after the Gathas). They also describe familial events such as the marriage of his daughter. UruvatNara and Hvare Ciϑra.[24] who appears in the . are also assumed to be based on earlier texts. remain tentative. the 13th section of the Avesta. including Central Asia." a noble Persian. Zoroaster was born into the priestly family of the Spitamids and his ancestor Spitāma is mentioned several times in the Gathas. or "Poroschasp. this text has been lost over the centuries. and it survives only as a summary in the seventh book of the 9th century Dēnkard. Other 9th.19. eludes categorization as a legendary character. Pourucista and Triti. Zoroaster prayed to Anahita for the conversion of King Vištaspa. children and a cousin named Maidhyoimangha.[18] Sarianidi considered the BMAC region as "the native land of the Zoroastrians and. most scholars had settled on an origin in Eastern Iran and/or Afghanistan. creation (that is aša). the new prophet relied especially upon his own kindred (hvaētuš).Σελίδα |7 Gathas as a historical personage. For humankind. In Shahnameh 5. The actual role of intermediary was played by the pious queen Hutaōsa. words and deeds. Vištaspa is said to have had two brothers as courtiers. showing Zoroaster (left. is to sustain aša.92.[25] he is said to have been murdered at the altar by the Turanians in the storming of Balkh. The purpose of humankind.[26] Jamaspa.C. Elements of Zoroastrian philosophy entered the West through their influence on Judaism and Middle Platonism and have been identified as one of the key early events in the development of philosophy. with star-studded globe). Zoroaster sees the human condition as the mental struggle between aša (truth) and druj (lie). Frašaōštra and Jamaspa. then became Zoroaster's successor.[29] [edit] Iconography . his son-in-law. 1509. In the Gathas. [edit] Death Zoroaster's death was said to have been in Balkh located in present-day Afghanistan during the Holy War between Turan and the Persian empire in 583 B. Apart from this connection. In legends. and to whom Zoroaster was closely related: his wife. existence (that is aša) and as the condition for Free Will. Zoroaster's death is not mentioned in the Avesta.[28] Among the classic Greek philosophers.[27] [edit] Philosophy Detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. like that of all other creation. including that of Ahura Mazda (who is aša). Heraclitus is often referred to as inspired by Zoroaster's thinking. Hvōvi. while Jamaspa was the husband of his daughter Pourucista. this occurs through active participation in life and the exercise of constructive thoughts. The cardinal concept of aša—which is highly nuanced and only vaguely translatable—is at the foundation of all Zoroastrian doctrine. was the daughter of Frashaōštra. the varza—usually stylized as a steel rod crowned by a bull's head—that priests carry in their installation ceremony.[31] Most importantly however.e. the Greeks (in the Hellenistic sense of the term) understood Zoroaster to be the "prophet and founder of the religion of the Iranian peoples" (e. i. with a baresman in hand and with a gloriole around his head. was their picture of Zoroaster as the sorcerer-astrologer non-plus-ultra. and reinforcing it. he appears with a mace. "the rest was mostly fantasy. Deriving from that image. Plutarch Isis and Osiris 46-7. was a "mass of literature"[32] attributed to him and that circulated the Mediterranean world from the 3rd century BCE to the end of antiquity and beyond. this figure was commonly supposed to be a depiction of Zoroaster. Until the 1920s.23-5). and indeed as the "inventor" of both magic and astrology. Zoroaster is rarely depicted as looking directly at the viewer. Zoroaster and Ptolemy are having a discussion in the lower right corner. The figure is standing on a lotus.[30] A common variant of the Zoroaster images derives from a Sassanid-era rock-face carving. Zoroaster is almost always depicted with a beard. as if beseeching.g. In other depictions he appears with a raised hand and thoughtfully lifted finger. as if to make a point. this along with other factors bearing similarities to 19th-century portraits of Jesus. and with a biography typical for every Neopythagorean sage. The prophet is holding a star-studded globe. "The Greeks considered the best wisdom to be exotic wisdom" and "what better and more convenient authority than the distant—temporally and geographically—Zoroaster?"[33] . in general the portrayals merely present him in white vestments (which are also worn by present-day Zoroastrian priests). Diogenes Laertius 1. or with a book in hand. Middle Persian barsom). which may be interpreted to be the Avesta. and was variously a king of Bactria. He often is seen holding a baresman (Avestan."[31] He was set in the impossibly ancient past.Σελίδα |8 Zoroastrian devotional art depicts the religion's founder with white clothing and a long beard Although a few recent depictions of Zoroaster show the prophet performing some deed of legend. but in recent years is more commonly interpreted to be a depiction of Mithra. at the core. which is generally considered to be another symbol of priesthood. a figure is seen to preside over the coronation of Ardashir I or II. Alternatively.6-9 and Agathias 2. a mission preceded by ascetic withdrawal and enlightenment. instead. he appears to be looking slightly upwards. or a Babylonian (or teacher of Babylonians). In this depiction at Taq-e Bostan. Among the most famous of the European depictions of Zoroaster is that of the figure in Raphael's 1509 The School of Athens. [edit] Western perceptions [edit] In classical antiquity Although. six to seven millennia before the Common Era. In it. Clement Stromata I. or rather.3). which identifies him with a parallel series of traditions about Nimrod having been the founder of astrology. Diodorus of Eritrea."[32] The attributions to "exotic" names (not restricted to magians) conferred an "authority of a remote and revelation wisdom. The 1st century Pliny the Elder names Zoroaster as the inventor of magic (Natural History 30.4) attributes the creation of the seven-day week to "the Babylonians in the circle of Zoroaster and Hystaspes. the Roman does not provide a "magician's persona" for him."[37] The second. and even. the little "magical" teaching that is ascribed to Zoroaster is actually very late. Lydus (On the Months II." for their opinion.2). cultural and temporal framework represents a bid for authority and a fount of legitimizing "alien wisdom".[36] One factor for the association with astrology was Zoroaster's name. Coptic or Latin. with the Zo-. Aristoxenus apud Hippolitus VI32. "However." and who did so because there were seven planets. that the stars killed him in revenge for having been restrained by him." That "dubious honor" went to the "fabulous magus.4-5. but their names sanctioned it. While the division along the lines of Zoroaster/astrology and Ostanes/magic is an "oversimplification. beginning with the Clementine Homilies 9. Its ethos and cultural matrix was likewise Hellenistic.[35] Moreover. on account of the living (zosan) stream of the star (asteros) being poured upon him.15)."[34] Once the magi were associated with magic in Greek imagination. and "more serious"[38] factor for the association with astrology was the notion that Zoroaster was a Babylonian. Ostanes.15. . Within the scheme of Greek thinking (which was always on the lookout for hidden significances and "real" meanings of words) his name was identified at first with star-worshiping (astrothytes "star sacrificer") and. Syriac. Alexander Polyhistor apud Clement's Stromata I. Similar ideas about Zoroaster also appear in early Christian literature. to whom most of the pseudepigraphic magical literature was attributed. and "the ascription of literature to sources beyond that political. with the very earliest example being from the 14th century.Σελίδα |9 The language of that literature was predominantly Greek.23-5. the descriptions do at least indicate what the works are not. The Pythagorean tradition considered the mathematician to have studied with Zoroaster in Babylonia (Porphyry Life of Pythagoras 12. even as the living star. Later. what the Greeks made of it. which—so Cumont and Bidez—derived from a Semitic form of his name. Zoroaster was bound to metamorphose into a magician too. Lucian of Samosata (Mennipus 6) decides to journey to Babylon "to ask one of the magi."[35] Although Pliny calls him the inventor of magic.2. Zoroaster's disciples and successors. Agathias 2. In this account. Nimrod is killed by lightning and posthumously deified by the Persians as "Zoroaster. they were not even expressions of what the Greeks and Romans "imagined the doctrines of Zoroastrianism to have been. The Suda's chapter on astronomia notes that the Babylonians learned their astrology from Zoroaster."[34] The assembled fragments do not even show noticeable commonality of outlook and teaching among the several authors who wrote under each name. though at one stage or another various parts of it passed through Aramaic. Zoroaster and the magi did not compose it. a principle of the division of labor appears to have spared Zoroaster most of the responsibility for introducing the dark arts to the Greek and Roman worlds." They were not expressions of Zoroastrian doctrine. an even more elaborate mythoetymology evolved: Zoroaster died by the living (zo-) flux (-ro-) of fire from the star (-astr-) which he himself had invoked. The alternate Greek name for Zoroaster was Zaratas/Zaradas/Zaratos (cf. Pliny's 2nd or 3rd century attribution of "two million lines" to Zoroaster suggest that (even if exaggeration and duplicates are taken into consideration) a formidable pseudepigraphic corpus once existed at the Library of Alexandria. papyrus rolls). and which ran to five volumes (i. reiteration of passages in works of other authors) is a complete Coptic tractate titled Zostrianos (after the first-person narrator) discovered in the Nag Hammadi library in 1945."[41] Among the named works attributed to "Zoroaster" is a treatise On Nature (Peri physeos).[44] With respect to substance and content in On Nature only two facts are known: that it was crammed with astrological speculations." but the titles of whose books are not mentioned. Another work circulating under the name of "Zoroaster" was the Asteroskopita (or Apotelesmatika). some authors did draw on a few genuinely Zoroastrian ideas."[34] A third text attributed to Zoroaster is On Virtue of Stones (Peri lithon timion). style.[34] Some allusions are .e. Words of Zoroaster.e. God of Truth [logos]. papyrus rolls).Σ ε λ ί δ α | 10 This sketch of Zoroaster was made by a Manichean initiate Almost all Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha is now lost. Plato's 4th century BCE version had the sun in second place above the moon. A three-line cryptogram in the colophones following the 131-page treatise identify the work as "words of truth of Zostrianos."[39] and on the authority of the 2nd century Galen of Pergamon and from a 6th century commentator on Aristotle it is known that the acquisition policies of well-endowed royal libraries created a market for fabricating manuscripts of famous and ancient authors. which was how it was understood in the 3rd century. another prominent magian pseudo-author. While Porphyry imagined Pythagoras listening to Zoroaster's discourse. These pseudepigraphic texts aside.[42][43] and Heraclides Ponticus wrote a text titled Zoroaster based on (what the author considered) "Zoroastrian" philosophy in order to express his disagreement with Plato on natural philosophy. and that Necessity (Ananké) was mentioned by name and that she was in the air. Numerous other fragments (preserved in the works of other authors) are attributed to "Zoroaster. "albeit a very varied one."[40] Invoking a "God of Truth" might seem Zoroastrian. is a set of prophecies distinguished from other Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha in that it draws on real Zoroastrian sources. Colotes accused Plato of plagiarizing Zoroaster. with Zoroaster taking the place of the original hero. of which nothing is known other than its extent (one volume) and that pseudo-Zoroaster sang it (from which Cumont and Bidez conclude that it was in verse). This corpus can safely be assumed to be pseudepigrapha because no one before Pliny refers to literature by "Zoroaster. Ironically. and of the attested texts—with only one exception—only fragments have survived. The title and fragments suggest that it was an astrological handbook.[39] The exception to the fragmentary evidence (i. On Nature has the sun in middle position. ethos and intention. its affinities are entirely with the congeners among the Gnostic tractates. but there is otherwise "nothing noticeably Zoroastrian" about the text and "in content. by "Hystaspes". for the making of predictions. The Oracles of Hystaspes. In contrast. The framework is a retelling of Plato's Myth of Er.e. which appears to have originally constituted four volumes (i. so for instance. However as early as 1643 statements by Sir Thomas Browne are the earliest recorded references to Zoroaster in the English language. Although almost nothing was known of his ideas until the late 18th century. by Jean-Philippe Rameau. a presage of his future wisdom. depicting Zoroaster as a warrior Zoroaster was known as a sage. He used to call the one Horomazes and the other Areimanius" (Isis and Osiris 46-7). Pliny also records (VII.Σ ε λ ί δ α | 11 more difficult to assess: in the same text that attributes the invention of magic to Zoroaster. . Pliny states that Zoroaster laughed on the day of his birth. five thousand years before the siege of Troy. XV) that Zoroaster's head had pulsated so strongly that it repelled the hand when laid upon it. I). his name was already associated with lost ancient wisdom. who lived. as. Pliny had sworn in the name of Hercules that no child had ever done so before the 40th day from his birth. The Iranians were however just as familiar with the Greek writers. Zoroaster appears as "Sarastro" in Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte. magician. so they record. With the translation of the Avesta by Abraham AnquetilDuperron. and for a time it was assumed that the origin of those myths lay with indigenous sources. although in an earlier place (VII. [edit] In the post-classical era This drawing was made by a Persian in the early 20th century. This notion of Zoroaster's laughter (like that of "two million verses") also appears in the 9th-11th century texts of genuine Zoroastrian tradition. preferable to Christianity. which has been noted for its Masonic elements. Western scholarship of Zoroastrianism began. He is also the subject of the 1749 opera Zoroastre. Enlightenment writers such as Voltaire promoted research into Zoroastrianism in the belief that it was a form of rational Deism. The provenance of other descriptions are clear. Zoroaster the Magus. and miracle-worker in post-Classical Western culture. for example. Plutarch's description of its dualistic theologies: "Others call the better of these a god and his rival a daemon. His wife and he were said to have claimed to have contacted Zoroaster through "automatic writing". inspired by Nietzsche's book. James Darmestar remarked in the translation of Zend Avesta: "When Islam assimilated the Zoroastrians to the People of the Book. on invading Persia. he shall be able to tell you whatever you ask him and he shall perform such things which others cannot perform. Zaradusht defrauded his master.681-683[48]) recounts that Zaradusht accompanied a Jewish prophet to Bishtasb/Vishtaspa.) [edit] Ahmadiyya view . the Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiya. Vishtaspa). Persia was under the sovereignty of Sasan V. is also called Also sprach Zarathustra. tell them what he knows the others do not. and he shall tell you even what lies hidden in your nature.648)[48] reports that Zaradusht bin Isfiman (an Arabic adaptation of "Zarathustra Spitama") was an inhabitant of Palestine. al-Tabari (i. protected the Zoroastrian religion. Elisha's servant Gehazi in Jewish Scripture). When the companions of the Prophet.Σ ε λ ί δ α | 12 In his seminal work Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra) (1885) the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche uses the native Iranian name Zarathustra which has a significant meaning[s] as he had used the familiar Greek-Latin name in his earlier works. among which Al-Shahrastani asserts that only the last of the three were properly followers of Zoroaster. still he was regarded as one of those prophets whose names have not been mentioned in the Qur'an. Upon their arrival. they at once came to the conclusion that Zoroaster was really a Divinely inspired prophet. According to this tale. the 9th/10th century historian al-Tabari (i. Accordingly the Muslims treated the founder of Zoroastrianism as a true prophet and believed in his religion as they did in other inspired creeds. [Muhammad]. Zarathustra. and a servant of one of the disciples of the prophet Jeremiah.[f] Richard Strauss's Opus 30. the Zoroaster has said: "They ask you as to how should they recognize a prophet and believe him to be true in what he says. Thus they accorded the same treatment to the Zoroastrian people which they did to other "People of the Book. The apostate Zaradusht then eventually made his way to Balkh (present day Afghanistan) where he converted Bishtasb (i. causing him to become leprous (cf.[45] It is believed that Nietzsche invents a characterization of Zarathustra as the mouthpiece for Nietzsche's own ideas against morality. for there is a verse in the Qur'an: "And We did send apostles before thee: there are some of them that We have mentioned to thee and there are others whom We have not mentioned to Thee." Though the name of Zoroaster is not mentioned in the Qur'an.[47] [edit] In other religious systems [edit] In Islam Citing the authority of the 8th century al-Kalbi. came in contact with the Zoroastrian people and learned these teachings." (Namah Shat Vakhshur Zartust.e.5-7. 69.[46][page needed] The protagonist and narrator of Gore Vidal's 1981 novel Creation is described to be the grandson of Zoroaster. .[48] The 10th/11th century heresiographer al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya into three sects. Zoroaster was mentioned by the Irish poet William Butler Yeats. Zaradusht translated the sage's Hebrew teachings for the king and so convinced him to convert (Tabari also notes that they had previously been Sabis) to the Magian religion. and thus according to the prophecy." (Introduction to Vendiad. the mythic hero in Giannina Braschi's 2011 dramatic novel "United States of Banana". p. the Kayumarthiya. who in turn compelled his subjects to adopt the religion of the Magians. Recalling other tradition. it evinced a rare historical sense and solved the problem of the origin of the Avesta. who cursed him. As regards the recognition of a prophet. 50–54) Shortly before the advent of the prophet of Islam." (40 : 78). joins forces with Shakespeare's Hamlet to liberate Calderon de la Barca's Segismundo from the dungeon of Vlad Plasmius. [53] Shoghi Effendi. the Báb. a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.[56] c:^ The Bundahishn computes "200 and some years" (GBd xxxvi.9) or "284 years" (IBd xxxiv. Zoroaster thus shares an exalted station with Abraham. and the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. and thus debated.[51] Manicheanism also incorporated other elements of Zoroastrian tradition. Also sprach Zarathustra. Christianity and Islam. saw Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of a post-Sassanid Zoroastrian prophecy that saw a return of Sassanid emperor Bahram:[54] Shoghi Effendi also stated that Zoroaster lived roughly 1000 years before Jesus."[57][58] d:^ "258 years before Alexander.Σ ε λ ί δ α | 13 Ahmadi Muslims view Zoroaster as a Prophet of God and describe the expressions of Ahura Mazda. many of these other Zoroastrian elements are either not part of Zoroaster's own teachings or are used quite differently from how they are used in Zoroastrianism. [edit] Notes a:^ Originally proposed by Burnouf[55] b:^ For refutation of these and other proposals. one of a line of prophets who have progressively revealed the Word of God to a gradually maturing humanity. with the latter specifically stating (in 943/944 AD) that "the Magians count a period of two hundred and fifty-eight years between their prophet and Alexander. Jesus. a tone poem composed in 1896 by Richard Strauss.[z] [edit] See also Poetry portal Zoroastrianism portal     List of founders of major religions Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo. 1991. That '258 years' was the generally accepted figure is however noted by al-Biruni and al-Masudi. however." is only superficially precise.[51][52] [edit] In the Bahá'í Faith Zoroaster appears in the Bahá'í Faith as a "Manifestation of God". Muhammad. Knowledge & Truth views Zoroaster as Prophet of God and describes such the expressions to be a concept which is similar to the concepts in Judaism. Bahá'u'lláh. the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. see Humbach.[50] Zoroaster's ethical dualism is—to an extent—incorporated in Mani's doctrine. which viewed the world as being locked in an epic battle between opposing forces of good and evil. author of a Persian epic biography on Zoroaster. the God of goodness and Ahraman. A simpler . the fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885. the God of evil as merely referring to the coexistence of forces of good and evil enabling humans to exercise free will. Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None. in his book Revelation.[49] [edit] In Manichaeism Manichaeism considered Zoroaster to be a figure (along with Jesus and the Buddha) in a line of prophets of which Mani (216–276) was the culmination. which the priesthood then reinterpreted.[58] What in Zoroaster's life happened 258 before Alexander? His birth? His enlightenment? His conversion of Vistaspa? His death? Similarly.9). from the Greeks[59] or the Babylonians[60] for example. Rationality. Mirza Tahir Ahmad. Moses. particularly the names of supernatural beings. before Alexander's what? His accession to the Macedonian throne? His invasion? His death? The beginning of the "Era of Alexander" (which began 10 years after his death)? It has been suggested that this "traditional date" is an adoption of some date from foreign sources. which cites no one but provides a date of "500 years before Plato" for one of its two Zoroasters. The Zoroastrian faith: tradition and modern research. Note: Cephalion and Justin suggest east of greater Iran whereas Pliny and Origen suggest west of Iran as his birthplace. Department of the Secretariat. which foresees recurring 12. 1979 to Mrs. An Introduction to Young Avestan: Introduction: Old and Young Avestan.000 years before Plato" (or "before Xerxes"). BCE). Published by Thoemmes. give or take a century or so.edu/~iranian/Avesta/index. P. The original Zoroastrian world view interprets being essentially on a moralistic basis and depicts the world as an arena for the struggle of the two fundamentals of being. ^ Markwart 1930.'" (Encyclopedia Iranica) ^ Shahbazi 1977. 13. Helen. BCE. May 13.). 7ff. represented in two antagonistic divine figures. ^ "Controversy over Zaraϑuštra's date has been an embarrassment of long standing to Zoroastrian studies. p. 15. Date for Old Avestan Skjærvø. it is that he lived no later than 1000 BC. a student of Plato's). http://bahai-library. THE HOME OF THE ARYANS. ISBN 1-85506-828-1.000 years before the Trojan war" or "6. ^ Nigosian. Good and Evil. P. Harvard University. Boyce 1975. BCE). Other classical sources—again on the authority of Xanthus of Lydia—consider "600 years before Xerxes" (i.[63] Paraphrases follow the original passage (Warum ich ein Schicksal bin 3).000-year segments each. Grundriß der neupersischen Etymologie. ^ cf. pp. available in the public domain on page 45 of the Project Gutenberg EBook.[45] z:^ From a letter of the Universal House of Justice. ISBN 978-0-7735-1144-6. Old Iranian/Avestan:Base Form Dictionary and Dictionary of most common AVESTA words. the 6000 BCE date is assumed to be based on a Greek misunderstanding of the (Zoroastrian) "great-year" cycles. ^ William Enfield. 6. ed. ^ s: By choosing the name of 'Zarathustra' as prophet of his philosophy.e. McGill-Queen's University Press.11. New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust.co. 501. 14. 2–26. pp. ^ Bailey 1953. http://books. Aristotle (4th c.). pp. Solomon (1993). pp. 2001. BCE). 3. 133–135 ^ For example zairi. ^ "Zoroaster's language" and "Zoroaster's dialect" used in reference to Old Avestan Michael Witzel.harvard.html ^ a b Schlerath 1977. Xanthus of Lydia (5th c. zaranaênem (golden. zairitem (golden/green). 10. Suda.e. If anything approaching a consensus exists. pp. 25–26. 40–42. 1080 BCE.) and Syncellus (8th c. ^ a b c d e Schmitt 2003 ^ Paul Horn. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. BCE) and Hermodorus (4th c. of gold). Gayle Woolson published in Hornby. he followed the paradoxical aim of paying homage to the original Iranian prophet and reversing his teachings at the same time. Eudoxus of Cnidus (5th/4th c. 9. Gronke 1993. 5. (1983). Johann Jakob Brucker.Σ ε λ ί δ α | 14 explanation is that the priests subtracted 42 (the age at which Zoroaster is said to have converted Vistaspa) from the round figure of 300. as he has expressed clearly.fas. http://www. 8. (2003). pp. "Their chief claim to any consideration"[62] is that these sources cite the authority of (variously) Hermippus (5th c. ^ Gershevitch 1964. 22. Strassburg 1893 ^ a b Mayrhofer 1977. Lactantius (3rd c. ^ e: The "extravagant. ^ f: Ecce Homo quotations are per the Ludovici translation. 4. 7. Plutarch (1st c. Knud Haakonssen. Diogenes Laertius (3rd c.000-year periods of three 3.(golden/yellow). 43–53. ^ cf. . which would then coincide with the linguistic dating of the Gathas. a Scholion to the (Pseudo-)Platonic Alcibiades Major. The date is typically described as "5.O. The History of Philosophy from the Earliest Periods: Drawn Up from Brucker's Historia Critica Philosophia. before his invasion of Greece). [edit] References 1. pages: 18. the tenth c. p. 12. 36–37. In general. 59–60.).google. Similarly. pp. i. pp."[61] "fantastic"[61] and "extraordinary"[62] 6000 BCE date (or thereabouts) appears in several classical sources: Pliny the Elder (1st c.uk/books?id=Uspf6eDDvjAC&pg=PA16&dq=Zoroaster+400&hl=en&sa=X&ei=V8EFT5WVMM XW8QPmvbi2Dw&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Zoroaster%20400&f=false. 2. though reputable scholars have proposed dates as widely apart as 1750 BCE and '258 years before Alexander. 15.). 11. ISBN 81-85091-46-3.com/?file=hornby_lights_guidance. 58 31. ^ Humbach 1991. 1993. I. ^ Solomon Alexander Nigosian. p. ^ a b Ashouri 2003. p. ^ [1]. p. ^ a b Beck 1991. 55. 61. ^ Zaehner 1972. 56. 21. p.com 38. ^ Beck 1991. 45. Kessinger Pub Co (Februar 2010). 59. 57. para. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. 25. 495. p. ^ a b Jackson 1896. 37. 105. ^ Shahbazi 1977. ^ Nock 1929. pp. ^ August Gladisch. 1. 493. 525. ^ Widengren 1961. 130–131. 52. 76. 7. p. 491. ^ a b Widengren 1961. Published by McGill-Queen's University Press – MQUP. ^ Khlopin 1992. ^ a b Beck 1991. ^ Jackson 1899. I. ^ Buck 1998. 42. p.com/books?id=QdFAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA174&dq=turkey+zoroaster&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Jc6WUImLFKq00AHBgoHwCQ&ved=0CDUQ6 AEwAw#v=onepage&q=turkey%20zoroaster&f=false 24. 54. 34.google. 23. IV 30. 8. ^ a b Shahbazi 1977. ^ Livingston 2002. ^ Watkins 2006. p. 44. 21. 17. "Herakleitos Und Zoroaster: Eine Historische Untersuchung". ^ http://books. 32. p. ^ Clementine Homilies. 62. ^ Frye 1992. 33. Rationality Knowledge & Truth 50. ^ Beck 2003. The Zoroastrian Faith: Tradition and Modern Research.com/books?id=WDMMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA116&lpg=PA116&dq=turan+iran+holy+war+583&sourc e=bl&ots=kLhq4npK6&sig=KaElqRHobeyvR4BPt2JCSgbMQ_I&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ToWWUPT8OKnJ0QHUhIEg&ved=0CDoQ6A EwAQ#v=onepage&q=turan%20iran%20holy%20war%20583&f=false 28. (1859). ^ http://books. 19.com/books?id=pqanFyF6nI0C&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=Ismailov+grey+wolves&source=bl&ots=V SNVoDmYin&sig=YNM3486bi0dN2kbbNDW25yIplC8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Z4CWULbbNcbL0QGc24GwBQ&ved=0CD cQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Ismailov%20grey%20wolves&f=false 27. 133 [edit] Bibliography . 17. Compassionatespirit. 245–265. 40. 179. pp. 54. p. p.Σ ε λ ί δ α | 15 16. 43–45. ^ a b Beck 2003. p. p. 35. ^ Livingston 2002.google. pp. pp. p. ^ Blackburn.18. ^ Revelation. p. ^ Jackson 1899. p. ^ Beck 1991. ^ a b c Qtd. 63. ^ Stausberg 2002. ^ Sieber 1973. pp. 405 29. 49. p. p. Book 9.google. p. ^ Sarianidi 1987. 111. ^ a b Beck 1991. ^ Burnouf 1833. 53. 189. 36. 162. 47. p. p. 20. p. 234. ^ http://books. 26. ISBN 0-7735-1144-X. ??. ^ Malandra 2005 22. p. 58. 144–145. ^ Nietzsche/Ludovici 1911. ^ Beck 1991. ^ Boyce 1989. ^ Appleton 2005. p. 48. ^ Taherzadeh 1976. 2. 107–110. 3. 41. p. 26. ^ Kingsley 1990. 13. 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 18. p. 46. p. "Philosophy". ISBN 978-1-160-10327-5. pp. 522. 51. 32–33. in Büchner 1936. 43. ^ a b c d Beck 1991. ^ Boyce 1975. 60. 523. 526. 39. 147. ^ a b Jackson 1896. Simon (1994). p. para. 4. p. p. p. Oxford: Oxford University Press Moulton. Cama Oriental Institute 58: 6–10 Gershevitch. "The Greek Origin of the Sixth-Century Dating of Zoroaster". I.ar/Eran/Articles/gnoli. Simon. Vol. "Zoroaster.iranicaonline. Zum Namengut des Avesta. Krishna. and Persia". Vol. Christopher (1998). Ecco Homo. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Moulton. I.com/Buck_PDFs/Buck_Zoroastrian_1998. Journal of the American Oriental Society (Journal of the American Oriental Society. Monika (1993).1953.27. Gherado (2000). "Zoroaster's Own Contribution". Edinburgh: T.1017/S0041977X00026069 Khlopin. V. "Nietzsche. Jahrhundert". Leiden: Brill Publishers Buck. http://www. und 14. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Levy. ISBN 0-595-23199-3 Malandra. Anthony Mario. "Zoroastrianism – Location and Time of its Origin". doi:10. doi:10.org/articles/zoroastrianism-i-historical-review Markwart. In Search of Zarathustra – Across Iran and Central Asia to Find the World's First Prophet.org/articles/zoroaster-iv-as-perceived-by-the-greeks Blackburn. Paris: Imprimatur Royale Effendi. Heidelberg: Winter Jackson. doi:10.html Gronke. New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online. 17) 17: 1–22. Leiden: Brill Publishers. "Buddha. JSTOR 592499 Jackson. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Zoroaster. Richard (2004).N. Frantz. Festschrift Marshak.org/en/t/se/GPB/ Foltz. ed. Freiburger Islamstudien 15. (1911). "Bahá'u'lláh as Zoroastrian saviour". trans. doi:10. The Gathas of Zarathushtra and the other Old Avestan texts. Vol. Williams (1899). Ludovici. "Thus Spake Not Zarathushtra: Zoroastrian Pseudepigrapha of the Greco-Roman World".1467-968X. 3. New York: Bibliotheca Persica Gnoli. Encyclopaedia Iranica.com. James Hope (1917). http://reference. Venice: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina. Peter (1990). "On the Date of Zoroaster". Transactions of the Philological Society 52: 21–42. "Zoroastrians in Central Asia in Ancient Times". The Dying God: The Hidden History of Western Civilization. London: OUP Boyce. New York: Columbia University Press Kingsley. Ilya (1964). Eran ud Aneran. ISBN 0-87743-020-9. New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online. William W. The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche. Eugène (1833). "Derwische im Vorhof der Macht. Das erste Kapitel der Gatha Uštavati (Orientalia 50). V.iranicaonline. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 23 (1): 12–38. the prophet of ancient Iran. http://www. "Indo-Iranian Studies". Shoghi (1991). "Agathias and the Date of Zoroaster". I. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Harold Walter (1953).1111/j. (2005).2143/IA. James Hope (1913). ed. R.krishna. Friedrich Wilhelm. Mary. New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online. Foulis . Zoroaster". Baha'i Publications Australia. History of Zoroastrianism. pp. ISBN 1-85168-336-4 Frye. Manfred (1977). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 53 (2): 245–265. The Treasure of the Magi. A History of Zoroastrianism. http://www. David N.. God Passes By.org/articles/nietzsche-and-persia Bailey.transoxiana. N. doi:10. Rome: Pontificio Instituto Biblico Mayrhofer. Iranica Antiqua 27: 96–116. Writers Club Press.1086/371754 Gnoli.tb00268. 491–565. "Zoroaster in History". as perceived by the Greeks".). Grenet. A. "Zoroastrianism: Historical Review".iranicaonline. Roger (1991). Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag Humbach.2307/592499.2002124 Kriwaczek. 2. http://christopherbuck. Journal of the K. Joseph (1930). Commentaire sur le Yaçna.bahai. The Compilation of Compilations. Oscar. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed.x Beck. Friedrich Wilhelm. Beck. http://bahai-library.com/compilations/buddha. in Boyce. Baha'i Studies Review 8.Σ ε λ ί δ α | 16 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Zoroaster Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Zoroaster                              Ashouri. Vol. A. Sozial. Mary (1975). Shoghi (1944). Gherardo (2003). (2005). Early Zoroastrianism.pdf Burnouf. Paul (2002).html Effendi. (2002). London: Williams and Norgate Nietzsche. Spirituality in the Land of the Noble: How Iran Shaped the World's Religions.0.und Wirtschaftsgeschichte Nordwestirans im 13. M. (1992). Biennial Yarshater Lecture Series. Helmut (1991). Richard N. Daryoush (2003). London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson Livingstone. Oxford: Oneworld publications. Roger (2003). Volume I. http://www. (1992). Williams (1896). R. Die Religion Zarathushtras. Kessinger Publishing. OT9.html Watkins.org/articles/zoroaster-perceived-ineurope Taherzadeh. Writing Junk: Culture. Adib (1976).org/articles/zoroaster-i-the-name Sieber. Vol. Worcester: University College. Encyclopaedia Iranica. pp. Robert Charles (1972). "Where Got I that Truth? Psychic Junk in a Modernist Landscape". http://books. as perceived in Western Europe after antiquity". Body (Conference Proceedings). Novum Testamentum 15 (3): 233–240. Chlodwig (1982). The Book of Zoroaster. An Outline of Religion. Schaeder". Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Zoroaster. Reitzenstein & H. H. Cf. A History of Zoroastrianism: The Early Period. The Journal of Hellenic Studies (The Journal of Hellenic Studies. A Comparison of Religions. Vol. or The Zartusht-Nāmah. H. doi:10.. (1929). Stausberg. London: Faber and Faber. A. Mary (1989). "The 'Traditional Date of Zoroaster' Explained". "South-West Asia: Migrations. Volume 1: Baghdad 1853–63.und Buddhismuskunde der Universität Wien) Widenren. Die arischen Personennamen und ihre Träger bei den Alexanderhistorikern (Studien zur iranischen Anthroponomastik). http://www. Michael (2002). International Association for the Study of Cultures of Central Asia Information Bulletin 13: 44–56 Shahbazi. Duane Reed. http://www. ISBN 978-90-04-08847-4 .. New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online. The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh. Geo (1961). New York: Biblo and Tannen. Fr. JSTOR 625011 Sarianidi. doi:10. ISBN 978-1-4179-8460-2. New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online. "Zoroaster. "(Book Review) Studien zum antiken Synkretismus aus Iran und Griechenland by R. Robert Charles (1958).iranicaonline.info/cl/Baha'i/Others/ROB/V1/Cover. http://www. Vienna: n. D. Mani and Manichaeism. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 40 (1): 25–35.1163/156853673X00079. the Aryans and Zoroastrians". Zurvan: A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Oxford: George Ronald. Schaeder. ISBN 978-08196-0280-0. Die Sprache 23 (2): 127–135 Schmitt. (Institut für Südasien-. E (2005).Σ ε λ ί δ α | 17                  Nock.google. ISBN 0-85398-270-8. (1987). doi:10. Shapur (1977). Alison (2006).google.com/?id=CeNmukklI_wC&printsec=frontcover&q Zartusht Bahram (2010). 3–4 Werba. London: Lulu Boyce. Rüdiger (2003). John (1973).1017/S0041977X00040386 Schlerath. V. 49) 49 (1): 111–116. Stuart. H. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Zaehner.iranicaonline. the name". Tibet. http://books.com/?id=8Er_8Gl0tcwC&printsec=frontcover Zaehner. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Stausberg. "An Introduction to the Tractate Zostrianos from Nag Hammadi". Michael (2005). I & II. "Noch Einmal Zarathustra". Reitzenstein.2307/625011. BRILL.peyman. Landscape..p. Bernfried (1977). especially Chapter IV: Prophets Outside Israel Appleton. Saxl. A.


Copyright © 2023 UPDOCS Inc.