Collision Theory • Particles must collide with eachHow fast? • Rate = amount of reactant used other with enough energy to react • Temperature, surface area, catalysts, concentrations of substances (or products formed) / time • Measure the amount of gas given off a reaction every 10 seconds, or weigh the reaction every 10 seconds Chemistry Rates of Reaction Answers The Effect of a catalyst • It lessens the amount of energy The effect of concentration • The particles are closer together The effect of Temperature • The particles have more energy, needed, therefore making the reaction cheaper • Catalysts are often efficient for only one reaction and therefore collide more often therefore move faster, colliding more frequently and with more energy • 10oc • 10oc Reversible Reactions • When the reactants react to make Making Ammonia – Haber process • Nitrogen and Hydrogen • Iron, 450oc, 200 atmospheres • They are recycled and put through products, which then react again to make reactants • It reaches equilibrium • By altering concentration on conditions the process again • 20% BUT It is quick and there are no waste products Chemistry • A metal that is found pure, not in an ore, e.g. gold. • Zinc, iron, copper, lead, tin • Aluminium, magnesium, potassium • Reduction is the removal of oxygen in a compound • Iron (III) oxide, coke, 4% impurities (makes it hard and brittle, only used for cast iron but produces steels) Chemistry • CnH2n+n • Saturated Hydrocarbons are hydrogen and carbon only and they contain as much hydrogen as possible on each molecule. Alkanes are saturated, Alkenes are unsaturated (they contain one or more double bond).( Chemistry • Because the substances in it burn in different conditions. • Fractional distillation • Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. • Molecular formula and structural formula Chemistry • The oil is vaporised, and sent into a fractional distillation column. Here they’re separated by gasses with different boiling points condensing at different levels, lowest boiling points (small carbon chains) at the top (gas) and highest at the bottom (for making roads – long carbon chains). These are more difficult to burn. Chemistry • They stop the suns heat escaping the earth atmosphere causing global warming. • Global dimming is particulates of carbon and hydrocarbons reflecting the suns rays. • We can reduce the amount of sulphur in the fuels or in the exhaust gasses after they are burnt. Chemistry • Incomplete combustion takes place in places with little air supply (like engines). It can produce carbon particles and carbon monoxide. Also fuels that contain sulphur can produce sulphur dioxide. • Sulphur dioxide causes acid rain, Carbon particles cause global dimming and carbon dioxide causes global warming.
Report "Collision Theory • Particles Must Collide With Each"